Uniform Mediation Act
25-2930. Act, how cited.
Sections 25-2930 to 25-2942 shall be known and may be cited as the Uniform Mediation Act.
Source:Laws 2003, LB 255, § 1.
25-2931. Terms, defined.
For purposes of the Uniform Mediation Act:
(1) Mediation means a process in which a mediator facilitates communication and negotiation between parties to assist them in reaching a voluntary agreement regarding their dispute.
(2) Mediation communication means a statement, whether oral or in a record or verbal or nonverbal, that occurs during a mediation or is made for purposes of considering, conducting, participating in, initiating, continuing, or reconvening a mediation or retaining a mediator.
(3) Mediator means an individual who conducts a mediation.
(4) Nonparty participant means a person, other than a party or mediator, that participates in a mediation.
(5) Mediation party means a person that participates in a mediation and whose agreement is necessary to resolve the dispute.
(6) Person means an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, limited liability company, association, joint venture, government, governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, public corporation, or any other legal or commercial entity.
(7) Proceeding means:
(A) a judicial, administrative, arbitral, or other adjudicative process, including related prehearing and post-hearing motions, conferences, and discovery; or
(B) a legislative hearing or similar process.
(8) Record means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form.
(9) Sign means:
(A) to execute or adopt a tangible symbol with the present intent to authenticate a record; or
(B) to attach or logically associate an electronic symbol, sound, or process to or with a record with the present intent to authenticate a record.
Source:Laws 2003, LB 255, § 2.
(a) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) or (c) of this section, the Uniform Mediation Act applies to a mediation in which:
(1) the mediation parties are required to mediate by statute or court or administrative agency rule or referred to mediation by a court, administrative agency, or arbitrator;
(2) the mediation parties and the mediator agree to mediate in a record that demonstrates an expectation that mediation communications will be privileged against disclosure; or
(3) the mediation parties use as a mediator an individual who holds himself or herself out as a mediator, or the mediation is provided by a person that holds itself out as providing mediation.
(b) The Uniform Mediation Act does not apply to a mediation:
(1) relating to the establishment, negotiation, administration, or termination of a collective-bargaining relationship;
(2) relating to a dispute that is pending under or is part of the processes established by a collective-bargaining agreement, except that the act applies to a mediation arising out of a dispute that has been filed with an administrative agency or court;
(3) conducted by a judge who might make a ruling on the case; or
(4) conducted under the auspices of:
(A) a primary or secondary school if all the parties and the mediator are students; or
(B) a correctional institution for youths or a juvenile center if all the parties and the mediator are residents of that institution.
(c) If the parties agree in advance in a signed record or a record of proceeding so reflects that all or part of a mediation is not privileged, the privileges under sections 25-2933 to 25-2935 do not apply to the mediation or part agreed upon. However, such sections apply to a mediation communication made by a person that has not received actual notice of the agreement before the communication is made.
Source:Laws 2003, LB 255, § 3.
25-2933. Privilege against disclosure; admissibility; discovery.
(a) Except as otherwise provided in section 25-2935, a mediation communication is privileged as provided in subsection (b) of this section and is not subject to discovery or admissible in evidence in a proceeding unless waived or precluded as provided by section 25-2934.
(b) In a proceeding, the following privileges apply:
(1) A mediation party may refuse to disclose, and may prevent any other person from disclosing, a mediation communication.
(2) A mediator may refuse to disclose a mediation communication and may prevent any other person from disclosing a mediation communication of the mediator.
(3) A nonparty participant may refuse to disclose, and may prevent any other person from disclosing, a mediation communication of the nonparty participant.
(c) Evidence or information that is otherwise admissible or subject to discovery does not become inadmissible or protected from discovery solely by reason of its disclosure or use in a mediation.
Source:Laws 2003, LB 255, § 4.
25-2934. Waiver and preclusion of privilege.
(a) A privilege under section 25-2933 may be waived in a record or orally during a proceeding if it is expressly waived by all parties to the mediation and:
(1) in the case of the privilege of a mediator, it is expressly waived by the mediator; and
(2) in the case of the privilege of a nonparty participant, it is expressly waived by the nonparty participant.
(b) A person that discloses or makes a representation about a mediation communication which prejudices another person in a proceeding is precluded from asserting a privilege under section 25-2933, but only to the extent necessary for the person prejudiced to respond to the representation or disclosure.
(c) A person that intentionally uses a mediation to plan, attempt to commit, or commit a crime or to conceal an ongoing crime or ongoing criminal activity is precluded from asserting a privilege under section 25-2933.
Source:Laws 2003, LB 255, § 5.
25-2935. Exceptions to privilege.
(a) There is no privilege under section 25-2933 for a mediation communication that is:
(1) in an agreement evidenced by a record signed by all parties to the agreement;
(2) available to the public under sections 84-712 to 84-712.09 or made during a session of a mediation which is open, or is required by law to be open, to the public;
(3) a threat or statement of a plan to inflict bodily injury or commit a crime of violence;
(4) intentionally used to plan a crime, attempt to commit a crime, or conceal an ongoing crime or ongoing criminal activity;
(5) sought or offered to prove or disprove a claim or complaint of professional misconduct or malpractice filed against a mediator;
(6) except as otherwise provided in subsection (c) of this section, sought or offered to prove or disprove a claim or complaint of professional misconduct or malpractice filed against a mediation party, nonparty participant, or representative of a party based on conduct occurring during a mediation; or
(7) sought or offered to prove or disprove abuse, neglect, abandonment, or exploitation in a proceeding in which a child or adult protective services agency is a party.
(b) There is no privilege under section 25-2933 if a court, administrative agency, or arbitrator finds, after a hearing in camera, that the party seeking discovery or the proponent of the evidence has shown that the evidence is not otherwise available, that there is a need for the evidence that substantially outweighs the interest in protecting confidentiality, and that the mediation communication is sought or offered in:
(1) a court proceeding involving a felony; or
(2) except as otherwise provided in subsection (c) of this section, a proceeding to prove a claim to rescind or reform or a defense to avoid liability on a contract arising out of the mediation.
(c) A mediator may not be compelled to provide evidence of a mediation communication referred to in subdivision (a)(6) or (b)(2) of this section.
(d) If a mediation communication is not privileged under subsection (a) or (b) of this section, only the portion of the communication necessary for the application of the exception from nondisclosure may be admitted. Admission of evidence under subsection (a) or (b) of this section does not render the evidence, or any other mediation communication, discoverable or admissible for any other purpose.
Source:Laws 2003, LB 255, § 6.
25-2936. Prohibited mediator reports.
(a) Except as required in subsection (b) of this section, a mediator may not make a report, assessment, evaluation, recommendation, finding, or other communication regarding a mediation to a court, administrative agency, or other authority that may make a ruling on the dispute that is the subject of the mediation.
(b) A mediator may disclose:
(1) whether the mediation occurred or has terminated, whether a settlement was reached, and attendance;
(2) a mediation communication as permitted under section 25-2935; or
(3) a mediation communication evidencing abuse, neglect, abandonment, or exploitation of an individual to a public agency responsible for protecting individuals against such mistreatment.
(c) A communication made in violation of subsection (a) of this section may not be considered by a court, administrative agency, or arbitrator.
Source:Laws 2003, LB 255, § 7.
Unless subject to the Open Meetings Act or sections 84-712 to 84-712.09, mediation communications are confidential to the extent agreed by the parties or provided by other law or rule of this state.
Source:Laws 2003, LB 255, § 8; Laws 2004, LB 821, § 9.
Open Meetings Act, see section 84-1407.
25-2938. Mediator's disclosure of conflicts of interest; background.
(a) Before accepting a mediation, an individual who is requested to serve as a mediator shall:
(1) make an inquiry that is reasonable under the circumstances to determine whether there are any known facts that a reasonable individual would consider likely to affect the impartiality of the mediator, including a financial or personal interest in the outcome of the mediation and an existing or past relationship with a mediation party or foreseeable participant in the mediation; and
(2) disclose any such known fact to the mediation parties as soon as is practical before accepting a mediation.
(b) If a mediator learns any fact described in subdivision (a)(1) of this section after accepting a mediation, the mediator shall disclose it as soon as is practicable.
(c) An individual who is requested to serve as a mediator shall disclose the mediator's qualifications to mediate a dispute.
(d) A person that violates subsection (a), (b), or (g) of this section is precluded by the violation from asserting a privilege under section 25-2933.
(e) Subsections (a), (b), (c), and (g) do not apply to an individual acting as a judge.
(f) The Uniform Mediation Act does not require that a mediator have a special qualification by background or profession.
(g) A mediator must be impartial, unless after disclosure of the facts required in subsections (a) and (b) of this section to be disclosed, the parties agree otherwise.
Source:Laws 2003, LB 255, § 9.
25-2939. Participation in mediation.
An attorney may represent, or other individual designated by a party may accompany the party to, and participate in a mediation. A waiver of representation or participation given before the mediation may be rescinded.
Source:Laws 2003, LB 255, § 10.
25-2940. Relation to federal Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act.
The Uniform Mediation Act modifies, limits, or supersedes the federal Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, 15 U.S.C. 7001 et seq., but the Uniform Mediation Act does not modify, limit, or supersede 15 U.S.C. 7001(c) or authorize electronic delivery of any of the notices described in 15 U.S.C. 7003(b).
Source:Laws 2003, LB 255, § 11.
25-2941. Uniformity of application and construction.
In applying and construing the Uniform Mediation Act, consideration must be given to the need to promote uniformity of the law with respect to its subject matter among states that enact it.
Source:Laws 2003, LB 255, § 12.
25-2942. Application to existing agreements or referrals.
(a) The Uniform Mediation Act governs a mediation pursuant to a referral or an agreement to mediate made on or after August 31, 2003.
(b) On or after January 1, 2004, the Uniform Mediation Act governs an agreement to mediate whenever made.
(c) The Uniform Mediation Act is intended to address issues of privilege and does not diminish any other mediation requirements of the statutes of Nebraska.
Source:Laws 2003, LB 255, § 13.